Autoestabelecimento de metas e ansiedade traÃ§o na aprendizagem de subida de degraus na escada de Bachman
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance on climbing Bachmanâ€™s ladder rungs in adolescents with high and low levels of trait anxiety (TA) who self-set their goals. We tested the hypothesis that those who self-set goals and scoring low in TA would show superior performance on retention and transfer than those who self-set goals scoring high in TA. The 40 participants [male and female; age 15.81Â±1,01 (MÂ±SD) years] who took part in the experiment were selected from a primary sample of 465 adolescents. Two groups were formed (high TA and low TA) and the task consisted of climbing the rungs of the Bachmanâ€™s ladder. The design was comprised of four experimental phases: 1) acquisition (15 blocks of 10 trials), 2) immediate transfer (one block of 10 trials); 3) delayed transfer (one block of 10 trials), 4) retention, (one block of 10 trials). The analyses of variance indicated significant effects for the main factor â€œblockâ€ in acquisition; the performance in the initial blocks was worse than in the last blocks. No group differences were detected on either acquisition or transfer and retention. Thus, our findings suggest that the practice undertaken through an active engagement of the learner via self-setting of goals enhanced the performance of all participants during acquisition. The lack of differences in performance between high and low levels of TA was probably due to the offset caused by the self-setting of goals.
Key Words: Goal setting, self-control, anxiety, adolescents, motor learning.Â
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