Auditory biofeedback decreases jump performance in figure skaters

  • Joao A. C. Barros California State University, Fullerton -
  • Llanel Florendo
  • Yvonne Le Department of Kinesiology, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California, USA; Stanbridge College, Irvine, California, USA
Keywords: figure skating, motor learning, attention


The few studies that attempted to increase jump height in figure skaters (Haguenauer et al., 2005, Law & Ste-Marie, 2005) have failed to do so. These studies did not focus on increasing knee flexion, a critical factor for jump height (Moran & Wallace, 2007, Vanezis & Lees, 2005). Auditory biofeedback has been shown to modify posture, balance and cycling performance (Dozza et al., 2011; Nicolai et al., 2010; Liu & Jensen, 2009) and could potentially be used to increase knee flexion in figure skaters. To investigate the effects of auditory biofeedback on the performance of Lutz jumps. Thirteen intermediate level female adolescence figure skaters performed 6 off-ice Lutz jumps under each of 2 conditions: 1) WITH auditory biofeedback; 2) and WITHOUT auditory biofeedback. Auditory biofeedback was provided via EMG Retrainer. Separate repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for time in the air, knee flexion and EMG activity. Differences between conditions for time in the air (p = .012) and knee flexion (p = .049) were identified. Auditory biofeedback increased knee flexion and decreased jump height. In this case, auditory biofeedback might have directed performers attention to an internal cue disrupting performance (Wulf, 2007).


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