Activity of upper limb and trunk muscles during power walking
Background: Arm swing is deliberately emphasized during power walking, a popular aerobic fitness exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activation curves of arm and shoulder muscles during power walking have not yet been examined. Aim: To describe the amount and pattern of EMG activity of upper limb muscles during power walking. Data are compared to normal walking and jogging. Method: Twenty volunteers were examined on a treadmill at 6 km/h during (a) normal walking, (b) power walking, (c) jogging. EMG data were collected for the trapezius (TRAP), anterior (AD) and posterior deltoid (PD), biceps (BIC), triceps (TRI), latissimus dorsi (LD) and erector spinae (ES) muscles. Results: Activity of four muscles (AD, BIC, PD, TRAP) was three- to fivefold stronger during power walking than normal walking. Smaller significant increases involved the TRI, LD and ES. Two muscles (AD, TRAP) were more active during power walking than running. Normal walking and power walking involved similar EMG patterns of PD, LD, ES, while EMG patterns of running and walking differed. Interpretation: Emphasizing arm swing during power walking triples the EMG activity of upper limb muscles, compared to normal walking. Similar basic temporal muscle activation patterns in both modes of walking indicate a common underlying motor program.
Park DS, Nam HS, Kim DH, Her JG, Woo JH. The comparison of exercise intensity between power walking and running. Korean Journal of Sports Medicine 2008; 26(2): 175-79. [in Korean]
Kurban S, Mehmetoglu I, Yerlikaya HF, GÃ¶nen S, Erdem S. Effect of chronic regular exercise on serum ischemia-modified albumin levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Res 2011; 36(3): 116-23.
Kim C, Kim BO, Lim KB, Kim YJ, Park YB. The effect of power-walking in phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program. Ann Rehabil Med 2012; 36(1): 133â€“40.
Kuster MS, Spalinger E, Blanksby BA, GÃ¤chter A. Endurance sports after total knee replacement: a biomechanical incestigation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(4): 721-24.
Meakin J. The beginner's guide to power walking. Hauppauge, NY, 2003: Barron's Educational Series.
Cho KK, Kim YS, Kim EJ. The comparative analysis of kinematic and EMG on power walking and normal gait. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2006; 16: 85-95. [in Korean]
Lacquaniti F, Ivanenko YP, Zago M. Patterned control of human locomotion. J Physiol 2012; 590: 2189-99.
Zelik KE, La Scaleia V, Ivanenko YP, Lacquaniti F. Can modular strategies simplify neural control of multidirectional human locomotion? J Neurophysiol 2014; 111: 1686-1702.
Ivanenko YP, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Distributed neural networks for controlling human locomotion. Lessons from normal and SCI subjects. Brain Res Bull 2009; 78: 13-21.
Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2000; 10: 361-74.
Burden A. How should we normalize electromyograms obtained from healthy participants? What we have learned from over 25 years of research. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2010; 20: 1023-35.
Chau T. A review of analytical techniques for gait data. Part 1: Fuzzy, statistical and fractal methods. Gait Posture 2001; 13: 49-66.
Ivanenko YP, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Five basic muscle activation patterns account for muscle activity during human locomotion. J Physiol 2004; 556: 267-82.
Davis BL, Vaughan CL. Phasic behavior of EMG signals during gait: use of multivariate statistics. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 1993; 3: 51-60.
Hogue RE. Upper-extremity muscular activity at different cadences and inclines during normal gait. Phys Ther 1969; 49: 963â€“72.
Ceccato JC, de SÃ¨ze M, Azevedo C, Cazalets JR. Comparison of trunk activity during gait initiation and walking in humans. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e8193.
Cappellini G, Ivanenko YP, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Motor patterns in human walking and running. J Neurophysiol 2012; 95: 3426-37.
Ivanenko YP, Cappellini G, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Spatiotemporal organization of alpha-motoneuron activity in the human spinal cord during different gaits and gait transitions. Eur J Neurosci 2008; 27: 3351-68.
Goudriaan M, Jonkers I, van Dieen JH, Bruijn SM. Arm swing in human walking: What is their drive? Gait Posture 2014; 40: 321-26.
Kuhtz-Buschbeck JP, Jing B. Activity of upper limb muscles during human walking. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012; 22:199-206.
Collins SH, Adamczyk PG, Kuo AD. Dynamic arm swinging in human walking. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2009; 276: 3679-88.
Pontzer H, Holloway JH, Raichlen DA, Lieberman DE. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running. J Exp Biol 2009; 212: 523-34.
Meyns P, Bruijn SM, Duysens J. The how and why of arm swing during human walking. Gait Posture 2013; 38: 555-62.
Sylos-Labini F, Ivanenko YP, MacLellan MJ, Cappellini G, Poppele RE, Lacquaniti F. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(3): e90775.
Gi SJ, Chae WS, Kang NJ, Jang JI, Yoon CJ. The comparative analysis of EMG activities on the lower limb muscles during power walking and normal walking. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2008; 18(4): 125-33. [in Korean]
Authors must declare that the work submitted is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication. If the manuscript includes work previously published elsewhere, it is the author(s) responsibility to obtain permission to use it and to indicate that such permission has been granted.
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email requesting them to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.