BJMB
Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior
Infographic
Magalhães et al.
2022
VOL.16
N.2
98 of 99
Infographic: Type of physical exercises recommended to improve balance and gait in
older adults with a history of falls
GABRIELA V. MAGALHÃES¹ | JULIANA A. SILVA
1
| MATHAEUS H. S. PEREIRA
1
| NATALIA M. RINALDI¹
1
Center of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Sports, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória/ES - Brazil
Correspondence to: Natalia Madalena Rinaldi. Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Avenida Fernando Ferrari, 514, 29075-
810, Vitória/ES Brasil.
email: [email protected]ufes.br
https://doi.org/10.20338/bjmb.v16i2.304
PUBLICATION DATA
Received 10 05 2022
Accepted 25 05 2022
Published 01 06 2022
Access infographic in https://socibracom.com/bjmb/index.php/bjmb/article/view/304/346.
INTRODUCTION
Aging is a dynamic process associated with declining physical performance and
progressive impairment of muscle strength, balance and mobility. A common result of
these impairments is falling, important event that leads to activity limitations, restriction of
social participation and a worse quality of life for the older adults. The systematic review
made by Teng, Gomersall, Hatton and Brauer (2020)
1
shows that impaired gait and
balance are risk factors for falling, but their effects can be reduced by exercise. Therefore,
the aim of the infographic is to recommend the main exercise to improve balance and gait
in older adults with a history of falls and its benefits.
For the selection of exercises indicated in the infographic, four systematic reviews
of randomized controlled trials were used. Multicomponent exercises seem to be able to
reduce the rate and risk of falls in the older adults
2-4
, as well as to improve gait. The
exercises must involve gait training, such as, walking multidirectional and obstacle
negotiation exercises with different levels of difficulty throughout the training
2-4
. Moreover,
it is important to include functional activities, for example, gait with different speeds, sit and
get up, walking upstairs training and dancing exercise
2-4
. It's interesting to include motor
coordination exercises, through the ball games and team games, strengthening for
abdomen, upper, and lower limb muscles and exercises using body weight
4
as well as
balance training, like standing on the one leg, balance-jumping and agility training
2-4
. Yet,
balance exercises that involve unstable bases also appear to reduce the risk and rate of
falls, as a consequence, it improves gait speed in older people with a history of falls
1
.
Moreover, the recommended intensity for exercise training is moderate (defined as
any physical activity that consume 3 to 5.9 METs) and the duration of each training
session proposed is one hour
3,4
. As for the prescription, it is recommended significant
BJMB
Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior
Magalhães et al.
2022
VOL.16
N.2
99 of 99
Infographic
doses of exercises, with a frequency per three hours or more for a week for a period of 6
months. Yet, it is necessary the constant practice of physical exercise to maintain the
benefits acquired by the training
3
.
For future studies, a relativization of dose-response effect adjusted for age,
comorbidities and past falls can be necessary. Finally, more extended follow-ups to verify
the sustained effect of exercise should be needed for understanding its long-term benefits.
REFERENCES
1. Teng B, Gomersall SR, Hatton A, Brauer SG. Combined group and home exercise
programmes in community-dwelling falls-risk older adults: Systematic review and meta-
analysis. Physiother Res Int. 2020; 25:e1839. https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.1839
2. Hamed A, Bohm S, Arampatzis FMA. Follow-up efficacy of physical exercise interventions
on fall incidence and fall risk in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sports Med. 2018; 4:56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0170-z.
3. Papalia GF, Papalia R, Balzani LAD, Torre G, Zampogna B, Vasta S, et al. The Effects of
Physical Exercise on Balance and Prevention of Falls in Older People: A Systematic
Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Med. 2020; 9, 2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082595.
4. Sherrington C, Fairhall N, Kwok W, Wallbank G, Tiedemann A, Michaleff ZA, et al.
Evidence on physical activity and falls prevention for people aged 65+ years: systematic
review to inform the WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior. Int J
Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2020; 17:144. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01041-3.
Citation: Magalhães GV, Silva JA, Pereira MHS, Rinaldi NM. (2022). Infographic: Type of physical exercises
recommended to improve balance and gait in older adults with a history of falls. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior,
16(2):98-99.
Editors: Dr Fabio Augusto Barbieri - São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, SP, Brazil; Dr José Angelo Barela -
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil; Dr Natalia Madalena Rinaldi - Federal University of
Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil.
Copyright:© 2022 Magalhães, Silva, Pereira and Rinaldi and BJMB. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International License which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are
credited.
Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-
profit sectors.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20338/bjmb.v16i2.304