Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior
173 of 174
INFOGRAPHIC: Developmental Coordination Disorder (part II) - recommendations for
motor interventions
Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), Arlington, Texas, United States of America
Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
Correspondence to: Priscila Tamplain. Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), Arlington, Texas, United States of America.
BF Body function and structure
CO-OP Cognitive orientation to daily occupational
DCD Developmental coordination disorder
ICF International classification of functioning
NTT Neuromotor task training
Received 26 01 2023
Accepted 27 02 2023
Published 30 09 2023
Access infographic in
KEYWORDS: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) | Motor skills | Motor development
| Recommendations | Interventions
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have motor coordination below expectations for their chronologic
age and are commonly described as clumsy
. The goal of this infographic is to provide information on recommendations for motor
intervention of DCD based on information available on a recent study
. Overall, the literature affirms that children with a diagnosis of
DCD should receive intervention. Both physical and occupational therapy are recommended and can help children perform everyday
tasks. According to the international clinical practice guidelines
, when planning a program of intervention, it is recommended that both
the strengths and weaknesses of the individual in their environmental context should be taken into account in order to improve motor
function, activity, and participation.
Smits-Engelsman and colleagues
classified motor interventions with basis on the International Classification of Functioning
(ICF) framework: 1) body function and structure (BF) oriented, where the activity engaged in is designed to improve targeted body
functions considered to underlie the reported functional motor problem; 2) activity oriented where the activity engaged in is designed to
improve performance in that activity; and 3) participation oriented, where the activity engaged in is designed to improve participation in
that activity in an everyday life situation. Overall, positive benefits were evident for activity-oriented approaches, body function-oriented
when combined with activities, active video games, and small group programs
. However, the authors explained the need for more
rigorous RCTs with follow-up to demonstrate sustained change rather than just short-term gains in performance.
A specific approach that shows overall effectiveness is the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP),
which is an individualized, task-specific (activity-oriented), cognitive-based, problem-solving approach for individuals experiencing
difficulties performing the skills they want or need to do. A recent randomized waitlist-control trial showed that CO-OP was effective in
achieving and maintaining functional motor goals after 3 months for children with DCD
Other specific recommendations involve the incorporation of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and functional strength)
protocols, Neuromotor Task Training (NTT), and the use of motor imagery training
. The severity of motor impairment affects not only the
presentation of DCD but also participation, which has important implications for treatment
. Different interventions may be required at key
stages of development or periods of transition to target participation
. Overall, it is recommended that individuals with DCD are given
ample opportunity to practice movement skills to learn them and to participate in daily activities (e.g., at home, school, in community and
leisure settings, and in sports).
BJMB! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!! Infographic
174 of 174
1. American Psychiatric Association, editors. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric
Association; 2013.
2. Smits-Engelsman B, Vincon S, Blank R, Quadrado VH, Polatajko H, Wilson PH. Evaluating the evidence for motor-based interventions in
developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Dev Disabil. 2018;74:72-102. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.01.002.
3. Blank R, Barnett AL, Cairney J, Green D, Kirby A, Polatajko H, et al. International clinical practice recommendations on the definition, diagnosis,
assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2019;61(3):242-85. doi:
4. Izadi-Najafabadi S, Gunton C, Dureno Z, Zwicker JG. Effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance intervention in improving
motor skills of children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized waitlist-control trial. Clin Rehabil. 2022;36(6):776-88. doi:
5. O’Dea Á, Robinson K, Coote S. Effectiveness of interventions to improve participation outcomes for children with developmental coordination
disorder: A systematic review. Br J Occup Ther. 2020;83(4):256-73. doi: 10.1177/0308022619866116.
Citation:!Tamplain P, Ferracioli-Gama MC. (2023).!Infographic: Developmental Coordination Disorder (part II) – recommendations for motor interventions. Brazilian Journal
of Motor Behavior, 17(5):173-174.
Editor-in-chief: Dr Fabio Augusto Barbieri - São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru, SP, Brazil. !
Associate editors: Dr José Angelo Barela - São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil; Dr Natalia Madalena Rinaldi - Federal University of Espírito Santo
(UFES), Vitória, ES, Brazil; Dr Renato de Moraes University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.!
Copyright:© 2023 Tamplain and Ferracioli-Gama and BJMB. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non
Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source
are credited.
Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.