Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior <p>Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to the Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior. These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production, and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal's requirements.</p> <p>The Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior (BJMB) is <span lang="PT-BR">a quarterly, peer-reviewed, and open access journal published</span><span lang="PT-BR"> by </span>the Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior (<em>Sociedade Brasileira de Comportamento Motor - SOCIBRACOM</em>).</p> <p>The BJMB accepts original contributions pertaining to the multidisciplinary study of human movement throughout the lifespan, involving a broad range of topics related to the field of Motor Behavior like motor control, development and learning, movement disorders, clinical, theoretical and model studies. These articles could come from diverse disciplines such as kinesiology, biomechanics, neurophysiology, neuroscience, psychology, medicine, sports performance and rehabilitation. </p> <p>The BJMB is published by using the Open Journal System technology to improve the speed, efficiency, quality, fairness, and impact of scientific publishing. <em>Please note that this journal only publishes manuscripts in English. </em></p> <p><em>There is NO charge or fees to publish in BJMB.</em></p> <p><em><span class="TextRun SCXW74348295" lang="EN-US">The first </span><span class="TextRun SCXW74348295" lang="EN-US">review of the paper will be taken in a maximum of 30 days after submission.</span></em></p> <p><em><span class="TextRun SCXW74348295" lang="EN-US">Please, for paper submission go to </span></em><a href="">Online Submissions</a></p> <p> </p> <p><em>E-mail: </em></p> <p>Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior</p> <p></p> en-US <p>Authors must declare that the work submitted is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication. If the manuscript includes work previously published elsewhere, it is the author(s) responsibility to obtain permission to use it and to indicate that such permission has been granted.&nbsp;</p> <p>Authors retain the copyright of their paper and grant the Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior (BJMB) the right to first publish the work under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives license (<a href="">CC BY-NC-ND</a>). This license allows users to share the paper given the appropriate credit to the author and source and does not allow commercial uses and derivative materials to be produced.</p> (Fabio A. Barbieri) (Brazilian Society of Motor Behavior - SOCIBRACOM) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Power output and energy cost: crucial measures to understand motor skill learning in handrim wheelchair propulsion <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> This current opinion is a call for standardization of measurements of manual wheeling ability among larger and diverse populations to support our understanding of motor control and learning.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>VIEW OF THE PAST:</strong> Handrim wheelchair propulsion remains the most common mode of wheeled ambulation and has stood the test of time as a practical upper-body alternative to walking.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CURRENT STATE:</strong> Two theoretical models appeared useful in understanding the demands on the wheelchair-user combination and the role of motor skill acquisition: Power Balance Model and Constraint-based Approach.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>FUTURE PERSPECTIVE:</strong> Power output and energy cost measures are crucial mediators in the development of a motor control theory of cyclic motions in rehabilitation, adapted sports and beyond.</p> Lucas H. V. van der Woude, Rachel E. Cowan, Vicky Goosey-Tolfrey, Félix Chénier, Ursina Arnet, Riemer J. K. Vegter Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas H. V. van der Woude, Rachel E. Cowan, Vicky Goosey-Tolfrey, Félix Chénier, Ursina Arnet, Riemer J. K. Vegter. Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Practice organization beyond memory processes: the Schöllhorn (2022) comments on generalization Guilherme M. Lage, Lidiane A. Fernandes, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Nathálya G. H. M. Nogueira, Bárbara P. Ferreira Copyright (c) 2022 Guilherme M. Lage, Lidiane A. Fernandes, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Nathálya G. H. M. Nogueira, Bárbara P. Ferreira Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial: The Role of Practice in Motor Skill Acquisition: New Issues, the Same Question <p style="font-weight: 400;">Practice is necessary but not sufficient for learning. Why is that the case? In this editorial, I invite the readers to consider what is the role of practice in motor skill acquisition and to read the contributions of well-known researchers in the area to this special issue. Through a summary of the diverse offered opinions, I provide a potential heuristic view that demonstrates what are the new venues on the theme. As it seems, the question remains unanswered and challenges to answer it abound. This special issue sets the starting point for a needed research agenda on the theme.</p> Matheus M. Pacheco Copyright (c) 2022 Matheus M. Pacheco Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ten guidelines for designing motor learning studies <p style="font-weight: 400;">Motor learning is a central focus of several disciplines including kinesiology, neuroscience and rehabilitation. However, given the different traditions of these fields, this interdisciplinarity can be a challenge when trying to interpret evidence and claims from motor learning experiments. To address this issue, we offer a set of ten guidelines for designing motor learning experiments starting from task selection to data analysis, primarily from the viewpoint of running lab-based experiments. The guidelines are not intended to serve as rigid rules, but instead to raise awareness about key issues in motor learning. We believe that addressing these issues can increase the robustness of work in the field and its relevance to the real-world.</p> Rajiv Ranganathan, Mei-Hua Lee, Chandramouli Krishnan Copyright (c) 2022 Rajiv Ranganathan, Mei-Hua Lee, Chandramouli Krishnan Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Extensive practice in motor learning: An overview and future directions <div><span lang="EN-US">Extensive practice is observed when performance reaches a plateau despite practice continuation. Although extensive practice promotes better results in retention tests, its status regarding transfer tests is not clear. The Adaptive Process Approach states that transfer will benefit from extensive practice. In turn, the Specificity of Practice Hypothesis states that transfer may be harmed after extensive practice. Each perspective has been around for 30 years, accumulating enough information to support its claims. However, they have not been directly contrasted, and each perspective has independently developed its methodological strategy to understand the role of extensive practice in motor learning. Therefore, it is possible that results supporting the perspectives are by-products of their methodological strategies, providing narrow validation limits to both perspectives. In order to better understand the effects of extensive practice on transfer, it is necessary to contrast the Adaptive Process Approach with the Specificity of Practice Hypothesis in a single and unifying methodological framework.</span></div> Vitor L. S. Profeta, Herbert Ugrinowitsch Copyright (c) 2022 Vitor L. S. Profeta, Herbert Ugrinowitsch Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of goal-directed reaching distance on standing postural control variability in non-disabled individuals <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Performing everyday standing tasks is relevant to the individuals independence. It is a challenging postural action that requires upper extremity (UE) movements to interact with objects of the environment. Postural movement variability is a strategy of the postural system for exploring postural boundaries during the action. The distance to the target to be reached may affect the variability in postural control parameters.</p> <p><strong>AIM:</strong> To test if the variability in postural control parameters is enhanced by reaching beyond the UE-length during a goal-directed standing task.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> Twelve non-disabled adult individuals performed reaching to turn on a light switch (target) while standing, which was placed at 100% and 130% of the UE-length distance. The kinetic data were recorded using a force plate during the UE movement, and the centre of pressure (CoP) displacement variability index was calculated.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The variability index of the CoP displacement for reaching was greater at the distance of 130% of UE-length compared to 100% in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions (p = 0.019). No differences in time to complete the task were observed.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Postural system increases the variability in postural controlling variable CoP displacement for reaching beyond the UE-length while standing. This movement variability helps individuals explore the boundaries of this standing action and may be useful for learning processes and counterbalancing postural disturbances.</p> Jocemar Ilha, Mayara B. Récchia, Caroline C. do Espírito Santo, Marcelo P. Pereira, Natália D. Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 Jocemar Ilha, Mayara B. Récchia, Caroline C. do Espírito Santo, Marcelo P. Pereira, Natália D. Pereira Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of the different distributed practice regimes on the learning of three-ball cascade juggling task <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> In its majority, the literature supports the superiority of distributed practice compared to massed practice on motor learning outcomes. However, inconsistencies in some findings claim for more efforts on this topic.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> We aimed to elucidate potential mechanisms that would support the distinct results between the different distributed practice regimes (among days and within-one-day).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Ninety participants, aged 18-25 years (45 men, 45 women) were randomly divided into 3 groups: Massed practice group (MASSED) - 30 minutes of practice without rest/ one day; Within-one-day distributed practice group (WITHIN) – 6 blocks of 5 minutes of practice interspersed by 3 minutes of rest/ one day; and, Among days distributed practice group (AMONG) – 3 blocks of 10 minutes of practice divided into 3 consecutive days. They practiced the three-ball cascade juggling task. The number of catches was the dependent variable. There was a retention test (absolute retention and savings analyses) after 24 hours from the acquisition phase.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> We identified that AMONG demonstrated higher absolute retention than WITHIN and MASSED. Both distributed practice regimes demonstrated better savings than MASSED.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Our results showed that distributed practice regimes enhance consolidation processes and information processing that benefit motor learning.</p> José E. M. Luz, Henrique D. Santos, Giordano M. G. Bonuzzi Copyright (c) 2022 José E. M. Luz, Henrique D. Santos, Giordano M. G. Bonuzzi Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Learning and performing: What can theory offer high performance sports practitioners? <p style="font-weight: 400;">Currently, the most prominent motor control theories that underpin the pedagogy of coaches in high performance sport are derived from the discipline of psychology with a dominant focus on internalised control processes for learning and performance. In contrast, ecological dynamics is a contemporary meta-theory focused on the person-environment scale of analysis for understanding human behavior, exemplified by strengthening the<em> relations between each learner and their environment</em>. In this tutorial, we outline key concepts in ecological dynamics that considers learning and performance as being distinct, yet inextricably linked. In our considerations, we raise questions on long-held assumptions about control process theories on learning and performance for practice designs in high performance sports. For example, how useful is inferring learning by describing improved <em>performance</em> as showing more relative permanence, greater stability and consistency, with commensurate lower levels of attention and movement variability? How relevant are traditional ways of measuring learning using retention and transfer tests in high performance sports? What is actually attained in an ecological view of learning, focussed on education of attention and calibration of actions to specifying information present in performance environments? An implication of these issues for high performance sport is that learning needs to be assessed by how well a learner adapts to the specific constraints and demands of a performance context. This key idea has important implications for performance analysis and evaluation in sport.</p> Ian Renshaw, Keith Davids, Mark O'Sullivan Copyright (c) 2022 Ian Renshaw, Keith Davids, Mark O'Sullivan Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 It's not the type of practice that matters, it's the attitude: The impact of playful practice on motor skill learning <p>The traditional approach to practice has focused on the physical structure of practice, manipulating parameters like duration, spacing, task variations, practice order, and whether tasks are practiced in parts or as a whole and physically or mentally. The emergence of the deliberate practice framework shifted the focus to the learner’s attitude or mindset toward practice. It argues that the most effective practice involves a consciously effortful, workman-like approach to remedying weaknesses in performance. In the current paper, we build on the notion of deliberate play that arose in response to the deliberate practice framework. Rather than view deliberate play as a forerunner to deliberate practice, we argue that a playful approach to practice can benefit the learning process at any stage of learning or skill development. We draw on contemporary research in motor learning and development, in developmental and evolutionary psychology, and in education to highlight the benefits of a playful approach to practice on motor skill learning. We end with practical suggestions for encouraging a playful approach to practice and learning.</p> David I. Anderson, Kylie A. Steel Copyright (c) 2022 David I. Anderson, Kylie A. Steel Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Insights on the practice schedule role on performance under a hierarchical system view <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> A theoretical background of hierarchical open systems has emerged as an alternative for explaining consistency and adaptability as complementary in the same motor skill related-structure at different levels of analysis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>AIM:</strong> Based on original supporting evidence, this paper presents and discusses how an adoption of such background allows theoretical and methodological insights on the role of practice schedule on performance.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>METHOD:</strong> Sixteen unexperienced individuals of both sexes performed 240 trials of the golf putting task over three days. They were randomly divided into four experimental groups: CO3 (performed trials at a distance of 3.0 m from the target); CO3i (performed all trials at a distance of 3.0 m from the target with a 9º incline on the last meter of the mini-golf putting); CO4 (performed all trials at a distance of 4.0 m from the target); and, VAR (performed all trials under these conditions in a counterbalanced order).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>RESULTS:</strong> All groups improved the performances related to the task goal, but in a different way by considering the frequencies of golf putting in different performance zones. Results also showed that the constant groups (CO3, CO3i and CO4) modified the macrostructures in different dimensions over practice, while VAR group only altered the microstructure.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> The distinct effects of the practice schedules on motor skill structure formation were only inferred because of adopting the hierarchical system view. Based on this background, it was possible to speculate that each practice schedule drives differently the formation of a motor control structure. </p> Umberto C. Correa, Ulysses A. Okada, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Rodolfo N. Benda Copyright (c) 2022 Umberto C. Correa, Ulysses A. Okada, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Rodolfo N. Benda Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Infographic: Type of physical exercises recommended to improve balance and gait in older adults with a history of falls <p>Aging is a dynamic process associated with declining physical performance and progressive impairment of muscle strength, balance and mobility. A common result of these impairments is falling, important event that leads to activity limitations, restriction of social participation and a worse quality of life for the older adults. The systematic review made by Teng, Gomersall, Hatton and Brauer (2020)<sup> 1</sup> shows that impaired gait and balance are risk factors for falling, but their effects can be reduced by exercise. Therefore, the aim of the infographic is to recommend the main exercise to improve balance and gait in older adults with a history of falls and its benefits.</p> <p>For the selection of exercises indicated in the infographic, four systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials were used. Multicomponent exercises seem to be able to reduce the rate and risk of falls in the older adults <sup>2-4</sup>, as well as to improve gait. The exercises must involve gait training, such as, walking multidirectional and obstacle negotiation exercises with different levels of difficulty throughout the training <sup>2-4</sup>. Moreover, it is important to include functional activities, for example, gait with different speeds, sit and get up, walking upstairs training and dancing exercise <sup>2-4</sup>. It's interesting to include motor coordination exercises, through the ball games and team games, strengthening for abdomen, upper, and lower limb muscles and exercises using body weight 4 as well as balance training, like standing on the one leg, balance-jumping and agility training <sup>2-4</sup>. Yet, balance exercises that involve unstable bases also appear to reduce the risk and rate of falls, as a consequence, it improves gait speed in older people with a history of falls <sup>1</sup>.</p> <p>Moreover, the recommended intensity for exercise training is moderate (defined as any physical activity that consume 3 to 5.9 METs) and the duration of each training session proposed is one hour <sup>3,4</sup>. As for the prescription, it is recommended significant doses of exercises, with a frequency per three hours or more for a week for a period of 6 months. Yet, it is necessary the constant practice of physical exercise to maintain the benefits acquired by the training <sup>3</sup>.</p> <p>For future studies, a relativization of dose-response effect adjusted for age, comorbidities and past falls can be necessary. Finally, more extended follow-ups to verify the sustained effect of exercise should be needed for understanding its long-term benefits.</p> Gabriela V. Magalhães, Juliana A. Silva, Mathaeus H. S. Pereira, Natalia M. Rinaldi Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriela V. Magalhães, Juliana A. Silva, Mathaeus H. S. Pereira, Natalia M. Rinaldi Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000