An internal model approach for motor behavior


  • Cláudio M. F. Leite Departamento of Science of Physical Education and Health, Federal University of São João del Rei, São João del Rei, MG, Brazil
  • Carlos E. Campos Universidade de Itaúna, Itaúna, MG, Brazil
  • Crislaine R. Couto Centro Universitário Metodista Izabela Hendrix, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
  • Herbert Ugrinowitsch Department of Sports, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil -



Forward model, Inverse model, Motor control, Motor learning, Motor adaptation


Interacting with the environment requires a remarkable ability to control, learn, and adapt motor skills to ever-changing conditions. The intriguing complexity involved in the process of controlling, learning, and adapting motor skills has led to the development of many theoretical approaches to explain and investigate motor behavior. This paper will present a theoretical approach built upon the top-down mode of motor control that shows substantial internal coherence and has a large and growing body of empirical evidence: The Internal Models. The Internal Models are representations of the external world within the CNS, which learn to predict this external world, simulate behaviors based on sensory inputs, and transform these predictions into motor actions. We present the Internal Models’ background based on two main structures, Inverse and Forward models, explain how they work, and present some applicability.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Leite, C. M. F., Campos, C. E., Couto, C. R., & Ugrinowitsch, H. (2021). An internal model approach for motor behavior. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior, 15(5), 356–371.



Special issue: 15 years of Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.