Insights on the practice schedule role on performance under a hierarchical system view
Keywords:Macro-micro, Order-disorder, Constraint-emergence, Variability of practice
BACKGROUND: A theoretical background of hierarchical open systems has emerged as an alternative for explaining consistency and adaptability as complementary in the same motor skill related-structure at different levels of analysis.
AIM: Based on original supporting evidence, this paper presents and discusses how an adoption of such background allows theoretical and methodological insights on the role of practice schedule on performance.
METHOD: Sixteen unexperienced individuals of both sexes performed 240 trials of the golf putting task over three days. They were randomly divided into four experimental groups: CO3 (performed trials at a distance of 3.0 m from the target); CO3i (performed all trials at a distance of 3.0 m from the target with a 9º incline on the last meter of the mini-golf putting); CO4 (performed all trials at a distance of 4.0 m from the target); and, VAR (performed all trials under these conditions in a counterbalanced order).
RESULTS: All groups improved the performances related to the task goal, but in a different way by considering the frequencies of golf putting in different performance zones. Results also showed that the constant groups (CO3, CO3i and CO4) modified the macrostructures in different dimensions over practice, while VAR group only altered the microstructure.
CONCLUSION: The distinct effects of the practice schedules on motor skill structure formation were only inferred because of adopting the hierarchical system view. Based on this background, it was possible to speculate that each practice schedule drives differently the formation of a motor control structure.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Umberto C. Correa, Ulysses A. Okada, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Rodolfo N. Benda
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